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Chiba et al (2010) Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer’s patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

Chiba et al (2010) Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer’s patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei.

Citation

Chiba Y, Shida K, Nagata S, Wada M, Bian L, Wang C, Shimizu T, Yamashiro Y, Kiyoshima-Shibata J, Nanno M, Nomoto K (2010) Well-controlled proinflammatory cytokine responses of Peyer's patch cells to probiotic Lactobacillus casei. Immunology 130(3):352-362

Objective

To further understand the regulatory effects of probiotics on the systemic and intestinal immune systems, by investigating cytokine production from murine spleen and Peyer's patch cells in response to different probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

Methods

The bacterial strains investigated were: Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Yakult, L. plantarum ATCC 14917, Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504, Escherichia coli ATCC 11303, and one strain each of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.

A detailed description of the in vitro tests is given in the full paper. Briefly, spleen and Peyer's patch cells were isolated and two types of samples were prepared: (a) unfractioned cells or (b) enriched in CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells, These samples were incubated in the presence or absence of heat-killed bacteria and the induction of cytokines by the test strains was measured.

In addition, effector T-cells were developed by culturing spleen and Peyer's patch murine cells obtained from a transgenic mice immunosensitive to the administration of ovalbumin. Then they were incubated with the test bacteria strains and the development of different T helper cell subsets, the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by differentiated effector T cells, and the development of regulatory T cells was studied.

Results

Of the strains tested, production of interleukin (IL)-12 by CD11b+ cells spleen cells was induced most strongly by LcS. This probiotic strain also effectively promoted development of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, which was associated with induction of high levels of interferon (IFN)-γ.

Levels of IL-12 secreted in response to LcS were lower for Peyer's patch cells compared with spleen cells, however this still resulted in Th1 cell development. IFN-g secretion by these LcS-induced Th1 cells stimulated with a specific antigen was downregulated in Peyer's patch cells.

Antigen stimulation resulted in efficient development of IL-17-producing Th17 cells in Peyer's patch cells. The presence of LcS resulted in a significant inhibition of antigen-induced IL-17 but with no decrease in the proportion of Th17 cells.

None of the test strains induced development of IL-10 producing, transforming growth factor (TGF)– β producing, or Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells.

Conclusions

The data suggest there is a mechanism whereby certain probiotics can downregulate the proinflammatory response in Peyer's patch cells.

The results show that IL-12 production by antigen-presenting cells, and IFN-γ and IL-17 production by Th1 and Th17 cells can be properly controlled when Peyer's patch cells are stimulated by the probiotic LcS strain. This is an important regulatory activity, as this strain has been shown to strongly induce Th1 cellular responses by induction of IL-12 production.

In the discussion, the authors note that this could explain results from clinical trials with LcS that show, on the one hand that consumption of this probiotic is associated with inhibitory effects against infection, cancer and allergies, but on the other hand that it can be beneficial with inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases.

 
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