LcS Research | EMERGING EVIDENCE
Research has been conducted on Lactobacillus casei Shirota for over 80 years, by scientists and clinicians all over the world, so it is not surprising that a very broad range of effects has been investigated.
Scroll down for further information on two areas of emerging evidence:
- Liver disease
A report from the British Liver Trust based on official statistics from 1971-2008, showed that liver disease is the only major cause of death that is still increasing year-on-year in the UK. Patients generally have an increased susceptibility to infection, and once infected have increased in-hospital mortality. The realisation of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in supporting the immune response and defence against infection has led to probiotic research in liver disease.
Different lines of research with L. casei Shirota associated with liver disease have explored:
i. Restoration of immune function in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosisii. Peri-operative synbiotic treatment that included L. casei Shirota, to prevent infectious complications (living liver donor; biliary cancer surgery).
Stadlbauer V et al (2008)
Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis. J Hepatol 48: 945-951
In this proof of concept, open-label study lasting four weeks, 12 patients consumed L. casei Shirota (6.5 x 109) three times daily in the form of a fermented milk drink. The following parameters were measured at baseline and after four weeks: neutrophil oxidative burst, phagocytosis, toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, plasma cytokines and ex vivo endotoxin-stimulated cytokine production. Data were compared with 13 healthy controls and 8 similar patients who did not consume probiotics.
- At baseline, neutrophil phagocytic capacity of patients was lower than the healthy controls (73% vs. 98%; P less than 0.05)
- Neutrophil phagocytic capacity normalised after the L. casei Shirota intervention (n=10; 100%; P less than 0.05). This did not occur in control patients not taking any probiotic
- Plasma levels of soluble TNF-receptor (sTNFR)-1 and -2, and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients compared to healthy controls; this did not change during the study
- Levels of sTNFR1, sTNFR1 and IL-10 (ex vivo and endotoxin-stimulated) were significantly lower after L. casei Shirota intervention (P less than 0.05)
- TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 were overexpressed in the patients; TLR4 expression became normalised after L. casei Shirota intervention
The authors concluded these data provide proof of the concept that probiotics can restore neutrophil phagocytic capacity in cirrhosis. The mechanism may involve changing IL-10 secretion and TLR4 expression.
[Note: Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 recognises peptidoglycan from Gram-positive bacteria; TLR 4 recognises lipopolysacccharide (endotoxin) from Gram-negative bacteria; TLR9 recognises certain motifs of bacterial DNA.]
Many different biomarkers indicative of different mechanisms of activity have been used in probiotic studies relating to cancer. The body of research for L. casei Shirota ranges from genotoxicity tests to retrospective epidemiological studies, as well as human intervention studies. These have shown:
- Reduction of harmful substances in the gut, e.g. carcinogenic enzymes and carcinogens (De Preter et al 2004; 2007; 2008; 2011)
- Restoration of NK cell activity (Nanno et al 2011; Reale et al 2011)
- Positive clinical outcome (Ishikawa et al 2005; Toi et al 2013; Verhoeven et al )
L. casei Shirota research has mainly focussed on colorectal cancer and bladder cancer but there are also studies relating to breast cancer, cervical cancer, biliary and liver cancer (post-operative infections), lung and uterine cancer.
A) Colorectal cancer
Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women (Boyle & Ferlay 2005). Whilst several aspects of lifestyle play a role in this cancer's aetiology, it is now widely believed that components of the intestinal microbiota may be involved in colonic carcinogenesis.
A highlight of the broad range of cancer studies with L. casei Shirota, is the following long term human intervention study.
Ishikawa H et al (2005)
Randomized trial of dietary fibre and Lactobacillus casei administration for prevention of colorectal tumours. Int J Cancer 116: 762-767.
In this randomised clinical trial, 398 subjects who had previously had at least two colorectal tumours surgically removed, were assigned to one of the following dietary interventions for four years: (i) dietary advice with consumption of wheat bran (7.5g three times a day); (ii) L. casei Shirota (LcS; 1010 viable cells/g three times a day as a powder); (iii) both; or (iv) neither. During this period, consultations occurred every three months. The primary endpoint was the presence or absence of new tumours after two and four years' intervention (detected by colonoscopy).
- After two years, multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) for occurrence of tumours was 0.76 (0.50-1.15) for the LcS group but 1.31 (0.87-1.98) in the wheat bran group
- After four years, in the LcS group there was a significant decrease in occurrence of colorectal tumours with moderate to severe atypia (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98)
- Wheat bran consumption resulted in a significantly higher incidence of tumours > 3mm
- Groups consuming wheat bran plus LcS had lower tumour occurrence compared to those without any intervention but higher compared to those on single dietary interventions
The authors concluded that intake of L. casei Shirota appeared to suppress the development of colorectal tumours. There was a statistically significant association between consumption and prevention of development of tumours with moderate to severe atypia.
B) Bladder cancer
L. casei Shirota research relating to bladder cancer includes epidemiological and human intervention studies. For example a retrospective case-control study by Ohashi et al (2002) compared 180 bladder cancer cases with 445 population matched controls in relation to ingestion of milk fermented with L. casei Shirota over the past 10-15 years. A negative correlation was found, indicating habitual intake of the lactic acid bacteria was associated with lower risk of bladder cancer.
Aso Y et al (1995)
Preventive effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double blind trial. Eur Urology 27: 104–109.
This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 138 patients who had undergone previous transurethral resection of bladder cancer. Prior to randomisation, the patients were stratified into three subgroups: (i) those with primary, multiple tumours; (ii) those with recurrent single tumours; (iii) those with recurrent multiple tumours.
The subjects were assigned to two groups either consuming 1g of a probiotic powder containing 1 x 1010 CFU of L. casei Shirota (LcS) three times daily or a placebo, for one year or until tumour recurrence. During the study period, no other anti-cancer therapy was given.
Tumour recurrence was monitored by quarterly cytological analysis of urine and endoscopic analysis. Routine haematology, biochemistry and urine tests were conducted before surgery at enrolment, at one and three months after enrolment, and thereafter every three months.
Compared to placebo, LcS was more effective in preventing tumour development in patients with primary, multiple tumours and those with recurrent single tumours but not in patients with recurrent multiple tumours
Data from patients with primary multiple tumours and with recurrent single tumours were combined for analysis. This showed that the 50% recurrence-free period was longer in the probiotic group (688 days) compared to the control (543 days), equivalent to a 1.3-fold increase in time (P = 0.08). Multivariate life-table analysis of this combined group of patients also showed a significantly better outcome for those on probiotic (P = 0.01) as well as a trend for slowing the rate of tumour.
The authors concluded that these data indicate that the L. casei Shirota preparation appeared to be safe and might help to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer.
Ishikawa et al (2005) Randomized trial of dietary fibre and Lactobacillus casei administration for prevention of colorectal tumours
Stadlbauer et al (2008) Effect of probiotic treatment on deranged neutrophil function and cytokine responses in patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis
Aso et al (1995) Preventive effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double blind trial
Rao et al (2009) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome
Naito et al (2011) Beneficial effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on insulin resistance in diet-induced obesity mice
Eguchi et al (2010) Perioperative synbiotic treatment to prevent infectious complications in patients after elective living donor liver transplantation. A prospective randomised study
Naito (2008) Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota and prevention of recurrence of bladder cancer.
Kumar et al (2012) Anticarcinogenic effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorphyllin on aflatoxin-B1-induced liver carcinogenesis in rats
Benton et al (2007) Impact of consuming a milk drink containing a probiotic on mood and cognition.
Naito et al (2008) Prevention of recurrence with Epirubicin and Lactobacillus casei after transurethral resection of bladder cancer
Gonzalez-Gonzalez et al (2011) Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity in milk fermented with probiotic strains
Nakabayashi et al (2011) Effects of synbiotic treatment on serum level of p-cresol in haemodialysis patients: a preliminary study
Zarfeshan et al (2011) Effect of Lactobacillus casei on the production of pro-inflammatory markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Verbeke et al (2008) Improvement of the gut environment by probiotics: possible risk reduction of cancer development?
Usami et al (2011) Effects of perioperative synbiotic treatment on infectious complications, intestinal integrity and faecal flora and organic acids in hepatic surgery with or without cirrhosis
Lodi et al (2010) Evaluation of fermented milk containing probiotic on dental enamel and biofilm: In situ study
Lodi et al (2010) Evaluation of some properties of fermented milk beverages that affect the demineralization of dental enamel
Ferraz et al (2009) Effects of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve on urinary oxalate excretion in nephrolithiasis patients
Staab et al (2009) The influence of a probiotic milk drink on the development of gingivitis: a pilot study
Fotiadis et al (2008) Role of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in chemoprevention for colorectal cancer
O'Donnell (2008) Does the probiotic L. casei help prevent recurrence after transurethral resection for superficial bladder cancer?
Lodi et al (2011) Fluoride concentration of some brands of fermented milks available in the market
Nanno et al (2011) Biological effects of probiotics: what impact does Lactobacillus casei Shirota have on us?
Lima et al (2005) In vitro evaluation of probiotics microorganisms adhesion to an artificial caries model.
Takagi et al (2008) The relationship between the in vitro response of dendritic cells to Lactobacillus and prevention of tumourigenesis in the mouse
Schwandt et al (2005) Effect of dairy products on the lifetime of Provox2 voice prostheses inactivated probiotic strains to intestinal mucus in vitro and in vivo.
Kawano et al (2010) Effect of Lactobacillus casei on Streptococcus bovis in faecal flora
Matsuzaki et al (2004) Antitumour activity and action mechanisms of Lactobacillus casei through the regulation of immune responses
Slawik et al (2011) Probiotics affect the clinical inflammatory parameters of experimental gingivitis in humans
Kimura et al (2002) Effects of fermented milk containing γ-aminobutyric acid on normal adult subjects
Ohashi et al (2002) Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer
Seow et al (2002) Lactobacillus species is more toxic to human bladder cancer cells than Mycobacterium bovis (bacillus Calmette-Guerin).
Reid & Bruce (2001) Selection of Lactobacillus strains for urogenital probiotic applications.
Takahashi et al (2001) Antitumor effects of the intravesical instillation of heat killed cells of the Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the murine orthotopic bladder tumor MBT-2
Busscher et al (2000) Preliminary observations on influence of dairy products on biofilm removal from silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro
Kikuchi-Hayakawa et al (2000) Lower plasma triglyceride level in Syrian hamsters fed on skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota
Nishino et al (2000). Transit of radical scavenging activity of milk products prepared by Maillard reaction and Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota fermentation through the hamster intestine
Ohashi et al (2000) Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer
Van der Mei et al (2000) Effect of probiotic bacteria on prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro
Asano et al (1986) Antitumor activity of Lactobacillus casei (LC9018) against experimental mouse bladder tumor (MBT-2)
Aso et al (1992) Prophylactic effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer
Chonan et al (1997) Effect of cell wall components from Lactobacillus casei on serum cholesterol levels in cholesterol-fed rats
Furuse et al (1997) Acceleration of granulocytic cell recovery in irradiated mice by a single subcutaneous injection of a heat-killed Lactobacillus casei preparation
Furushiro et al (1990) Blood pressure-lowering effect of extract from Lactobacillus casei in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Furushiro et al (1993) Mechanism for the antihypertensive effect of a polysaccharide-glycopeptide complex from Lactobacillus casei in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Hashimoto et al (1984). Oxygen radical production by peritoneal macrophages and Kupffer cells elicited with Lactobacillus casei.
Furushiro et al (1995) Effects of extract from Lactobacillus casei on blood pressure, cerebral stroke lesions, and life span in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP).
Hashimoto et al (1987) In vitro and in vivo release of cytostatic factors from Lactobacillus casei-elicited peritoneal macrophages after stimulation with tumor cells and immunostimulants.
Hayatsu & Hayatsu (1993) Suppressing effect of Lactobacillus casei administration on the urinary mutagenicity arising from ingestion of fried ground beef in the human
Hashimoto et al (1985) Cytotoxic factor production by Kupffer cells elicited with Lactobacillus casei and Corynebacterium parvum
Kato et al (1981) Antitumor activity of Lactobacillus casei in mice
Kato et al (1983) Macrophage activation by Lactobacillus casei in mice
Kato et al (1994) Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on antitumor responses induced by tumor resection in mice
Kato et al (1984) Augmentation of mouse natural killer cell activity by Lactobacillus casei and its surface antigens
Kato et al (1985) Induction of tumoricidal peritoneal exudate cells by administration of Lactobacillus casei.
Kato et al (1999) Lactic acid bacterium potently induces the production of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma by mouse splenocytes
Masuno et al (1991) A comparative trial of LC9018 plus doxoburubicin and doxorubicin alone for the treatment of malignant pleural effusion secondary to lung cancer
Kato et al (1999) Lactic acid bacterium potently induces the production of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma by mouse splenocytes
Matsuzaki & Yokokura (1987) Inhibition of tumor metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by intrapleural administration of Lactobacillus casei
Kato et al (1988) Correlation between increase in Ia-bearing macrophages and induction of T cell-dependent antitumour activity by Lactobacillus casei in mice
Matsuzaki et al (1996) Effects on antitumor activity and cytokine production in the thoracic cavity by intrapleural administration of Lactobacillus casei in tumor bearing mice
Matsuzaki et al (1997) Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on alloxan-induced diabetes in mice
Matsuzaki et al (1997) Prevention of onset in an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model, NOD mice, by oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei
Matsuzaki et al (1990) Augmentation of antimetastatic effect on Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 mice by priming with Lactobacillus casei.
Matsuzaki et al (1997) Antidiabetic effects of an oral administration of Lactobacillus casei in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model using KK-Ay mice.
Matsuzaki et al (1988) Effect of subcutaneous injection of a lactobacilli preparation, LC 9018, and antitumor drugs on murine tumor
Matsuzaki et al (1987) Antimetastatic effect of Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 (LC9018) on a highly metastatic variant of B16 melanoma in C57BL/6J mice
Sakamoto S & Akaza H (1997) Prophylactic Effect of a Lactobacillus casei Preparation on the Recurrence of Bladder Cancer
Matsuzaki et al (1988) Antitumor effect of intrapleural administration of Lactobacillus casei in mice.
Nanno et al (1988). Role of macrophages in serum colony-stimulating factor induction by Lactobacillus casei in mice
Matsuzaki et al (1988) The role of lymph node cells in the inhibition of metastasis by subcutaneous injection of Lactobacillus casei in mice
Matsuzaki et al (1985) Anti-tumour activity of Lactobacillus casei on Lewis lung carcinoma and line-10 hepatoma in syngenic mice and guinea pigs
Morotomi & Mutai (1986) In vitro binding of potent mutagenic pyrolysates to intestinal bacteria
Mugitani & Furue (1987) Evaluation on the safety of LC9018 - study on single subcutaneous administration of LC9018 to healthy men
Mutai et al (1975) Relationship between a fermented milk beverage and factors involved in dental caries formation
Sawamura et al (1994) The enhancing effect of oral Lactobacillus casei on the immunologic activity of colon cancer patients
Nakajima et al (1995) Antihypertensive effect of extracts of Lactobacillus casei in patients with hypertension.
Nomoto et al (1991) Radioprotection of mice by a single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus casei after irradiation
Shimizu et al (1988) Usefulness of priming of hosts with LC 9018 in the LC 9018 immunotherapy system
Okawa et al (1989) Phase II randomized clinical trial of LC9018 concurrently used with radiation in the treatment of carcinoma of the uterine cervix: Its effect on tumor reduction and histology
Sawada et al (1990) Purification and characterization of an antihypertensive compound from Lactobacillus casei
Yasutake et al (1985). Anti-tumour effect of humoral and cellular immunities mediated by a bacterial immunopotentiator, Lactobacillus casei, in mice
Shimizu et al (1987) Role of colony-stimulating activity in antitumour activity of Lactobacillus casei in mice
Takagi al (1999) Inhibitory effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on 3-methylcholanthren-induced carcinogenesis in mice
Takahashi T & Morotomi M (1994) Absence of cholic acid 7alfa-dehydrolase activity in the strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium
Tohgo et al (1989) Effect of combined intrapleural administration of Lactobacillus casei (LC9018) and adriamycin on experimental malignant pleurisy in mice
Tomita et al (1994) Influence of Lactobacillus casei on rat bladder carcinogenesis
Uchida et al (1992) Pathological changes caused by LC9018 in mice with experimental carcinomatous pleuritis - comparison with human carcinomatous pleuritis
Watanabe T & Hotta C (1996) Enhancement of host resistance to microbial infections in mice fed a high fat diet by Lactobacillus casei cells
Watanuki et al (1999) Improvement of blood pressure by extracts of Lactobacillus casei in hypertensive persons
Yasutake et al (1984) Host-mediated antitumor activity of Lactobacillus casei in mice
Yasutake et al (1984) Comparison of antitumor activity of Lactobacillus casei with other bacterial immunopotentiators
Yasutake et al (1985). Anti-tumour effect of humoral and cellular immunities mediated by a bacterial immunopotentiator, Lactobacillus casei, in mice
Yokokura T (1994) Antitumor and immuno-stimulating activities of Lactobacillus casei
Yokokura et al (1984) Antitumor activity of Lactobacillus casei YIT 9018 (LC 9018). Effect of administration route
Mailander-Sanchez et al (2012) Characterisation of the protective and immuneregulatory activity of probiotic Lactobacilli in oral Candidiasis.
Shimizu et al (2012) Successful treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis with a steroid and a probiotic
Wagnerberger et al (2012) Lactobacillus casei Shirota protects from fructose-induced liver steatosis: A mouse model
Leber et al (2012) The influence of probiotic supplementation on gut permeability in patients with metabolic syndrome: an open label randomized study
Rojas-Ronquillo et al (2012) Antithrombotic and angiotensin-converting ensyme inhibitory properties of peptides released from bovine casein by Lactobacillus casei Shirota
Sagdic O et al (2012) Interaction between some phenolic compounds and probiotic bacterium in functional ice cream production
Tripolt NJ et al (2013) Short communication: Effect of supplementation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota on insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and markers of endothelial function and inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome. A pilot study
Mendonça FHBP et al (2013) Effects of probiotic bacteria on Candida presence and IgA anti-Candida in the oral cavity of elderly
Nasrabadi EN et al (2013) Reduction of aflatoxin level in aflatoxin-induced rats by the activity of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota
Gemeier C et al (2013) Effects of the probiotic drink Yakult Light on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with impaired metabolic function
Koga H et al (2012) Probiotics promote rapid-turnover protein production by restoring gut flora in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.
Toi M et al (2013) Probiotic beverage with soy isoflavone consumption for breast cancer prevention: a case control study.
Kaga C et al (2013) Lactobacillus casei Shirota enhances the preventive effect of soymilk in chemically induced breast cancer
Lénárt J et al (2013) Metabolomic approach assisted high resolution LC-ESI-MS based identification of a xenobiotic derivative of fenhexamid produced by Lactobacillus casei.
Okubo H et al (2013) Lactobacillus casei Shirota protects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis development in a rat model.
Sutula J et al (2013) The effect of a commercial probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on oral health in healthy dentate people.
Rubio R et al (2014) Nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages as a vehicle for potential probiotic delivery
Pang & Shaopeng (2013) Immune modulatory mechanisms of Yakult in prevention of colitis-associated colorectal cancer
Kaya MS et al (2014) In case of obesity, longevity-related mechanisms lead to anti-inflammation
Shida K & Nomoto K (2013) Probiotics as efficient immunopotentiators: translational role in cancer prevention
Miranda Alatriste PV et al (2014) Effect of probiotics on human blood urea levels in patients with chronic renal failure
Serrano-Nino CJ et al (2014) In vitro study of the potential protective role of Lactobacillus strains by acrylamide binding
Lin X et al (2015) The effect of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.
Tanida M et al (2014) Injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota affects autonomic nerve activities in a tissue-specific manner, and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in rats
Shyu PT et al (2014) Cytotoxicity of probiotics from Philippine commercial dairy products on cancer cells and the effect on expression of cfos and cjun early apoptotic-promoting genes and interleukin -1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha proinflammatory cytokine genes
Hulston CJ (2015) Probiotic supplementation prevents high-fat, overfeeding-induced insulin resistance in human subjects.
Yadav M et al (2014) Evaluation of probiotic milk on salivary mutans streptococci count: an in vivo microbiological study.
Nagahama K et al (2015) Synthesis and immunestimulating activity of lactobacilli-originated polysaccharides-polymeric microparticle conjugates
Lo RS et al (2014) Is there a role for probiotics in liver disease?
Jiang Q et al (2015) Inhibitory activity in vitro of probiotic lactobacilli against oral Candida under different fermentation conditions.
Comparison of the anti-obesity and hypocholesterolaemic effects of single Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota and probiotic cocktail
Tripolt et al (2015) Effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota supplementation on trimethylamine-N-oxide levels in patients with metabolic syndrome: An open-label, randomized study
Mahantesha T et al (2015) Comparative study of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in 6-12 years age group children.
Mohd Redzwan et al (2015) Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study
Stadlbauer V et al (2015) Lactobacillus casei Shirota supplementation does not restore gut microbiota compositin and gut barrier in metabolic syndrome: a randomized pilot study
Anderson C et al (2015) Lactic acid fermentation, urea and lime addition: promising faecal sludge sanitizing methods for emergency sanitation
González-Vázquez et al (2015) Isolation, identification and partial characterization of a Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota with bile salt hydrolase activity from pulque
Motoori et al (2015) Randomized study of the effect of synbiotics during neoadjuvant chemotherapy on adverse events in esophageal cancer patients.
Karimi et al (2015) The anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota versus Orlistat on high fat diet-induced obese rats.
Nagino T et al (2016) Intake of a fermented soymilk beverage contains moderate levels of isoflavone aglycones enhances bioavailability of isoflavones in healthy premenopausal Japanese women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover trial.
Tanida M et al (2016) Intragastric injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppressed spllen sympathetic activation by central corticotrophin-releasing factor or peripheral 2-deoxy-D-glucose in anesthetized rats
Kwan et al (2016) Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota
Tanida et al (2016) Intragastric injection of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppressed spllen sympathetic activation by central corticotrophin-releasing factor or peripheral 2-deoxy-D-glucose in anesthetized rats
Takada et al (2016) Probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota relieves stress-assocaited symptoms by modulating the gut-brain interaction in human and animal models.
De Preter et al (2007) Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium breve and oligofructose-enriched inulin on colonic nitrogen-protein metabolism in healthy humans.
Asahara et al (2003) Assessment of safety of Lactobacillus strains based on resistance to host innate defense
Kato et al (1998) Suppressive effects of the oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on type II collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice
Tohyama et al (1981) Effect of lactobacilli on urinary indican excretion in gnotobiotic rats and in man
Kato-Kataoka et al (2016) Fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota preserves the diversity of the gut microbiota and relieves abdominal dysfunction in healthy medical students exposed to academic stress.